The effective elastic moduli of porous granular rocks, Microscale damage evolution in compacting sandstone, The August 16, 2012 Earthquake Near Huizinge (Groningen), Correlation between hydrocarbon reservoir properties and induced seismicity in the Netherlands, A survey of the induced seismic responses to fluid injection in geothermal and CO, Deformation and seismicity in the Coso geothermal area, Inyo County, California: Observations and modeling using satellite radar interferometry, Elastic wave velocities and permeability evolution during compaction of Bleurswiller sandstone, Acoustic emission and velocities associated with the formation of compaction bands in sandstone, Large‐scale three‐dimensional geomechanical modeling of reservoirs: Examples from California and the deepwater Gulf of Mexico, Diagenesis and fluid evolution of deeply buried Permian (Rotliegende) gas reservoirs, northwest Germany, The Groningen gas field: Fifty years of exploration and gas production from a Permian dryland reservoir, The Permian Rotliegend of the Netherlands, Induced seismicity related to geothermal projects versus natural tectonic earthquakes and other types of induced seismic events in Central Europe, 3‐D elastoplastic FEM modelling in a reservoir simulator, Time‐dependent brittle creep in Darley Dale sandstone, Time‐dependent compaction band formation in sandstone, Elastic moduli evolution and accompanying stress changes with increasing crack damage: Implications for stress changes around fault zones and volcanoes during deformation, Production‐induced compaction of a sandstone reservoir: The strong influence of stress path, Long‐term compaction behavior of Permian sandstones—An investigation into the mechanisms of subsidence in the Dutch Wadden Sea, Rock physical controls on production‐induced compaction in the Groningen Field, Core quality: Quantification of coring‐induced rock alteration, Evolution of permeability and Biot coefficient at high mean stresses in high porosity sandstone, Conditions for compaction bands in porous rock, Laboratory deformation of granular quartz sand: Implications for the burial of clastic rocks, Satellite Radar Interferometry: Subsidence Monitoring Techniques, Mechanical behaviour and failure mode of Bentheim Sandstone under triaxial compression, In ‐ situ compaction measurements using gamma ray markers (June), Geomechanical modeling to evaluate production‐induced seismicity at the Groningen field, Subsidence in the Louisiana coastal zone due to hydrocarbon production, On relating apparent stress to the stress causing earthquake fault slip, Micromechanics of brittle faulting and cataclastic flow in Berea sandstone, Evidence of regional subsidence and associated interior wetland loss induced by hydrocarbon production, Gulf Coast region, USA, Field evidence of subsidence and faulting induced by hydrocarbon production in coastal southeast Texas, Gulf Coast Assoc, Soil Behaviour and Critical State Soil Mechanics, Modelling of Stress Development and Fault Slip In and Around a Producing Gas Reservoir, Technical addendum to the Winningsplan Groningen 2013 subsidence, induced earthquakes and seismic hazard analysis in the Groningen field, Technical addendum to the Winningsplan Groningen 2016, Compaction creep of quartz sand at 400 ^ 600, Experimental Rock Deformation—The Brittle Field, Influence of Deformation on the Fluid Transport Properties of Salt Rocks, Deformation behaviour of sandstones from the seismogenic Groningen gas field: Role of inelastic versus elastic mechanisms, The small effect of poroelastic pressure transients on triggering of production‐induced earthquakes in the Groningen natural gas field, Local subsidence of the Goose creek oil field, Globally optimal stitching of tiled 3D microscopic image acquisitions, Microscale characterization of rupture nucleation unravels precursors to faulting in rocks, An integrated model for transitional pressure solution in sandstones, Conditions for the localization of deformation in pressure‐sensitive dilatant materials.
Both were found to increase with increasing mean effective stress (P) and with decreasing initial sample porosity (φ0; Figure 5). In short, the combined hydrostatic plus deviatoric stress cycling experiments were performed using an externally heated, constant volume triaxial testing machine. Baud et al., 2006).
However, growth of authigenic clay minerals (illite, kaolinite/dickite, chlorite) relates to changes in the chemistry and flow rate of formation waters. ), The Groningen Field is on a culmination of the large, regional Northern Netherlands high which was formed during the late Kimmeric tectonic phase (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous).

Minister Eric Wiebes van Economie en Klimaat zegde op 10 januari 2018 bij een bezoek aan het gebied toe, dat er snel een goed schadeprotocol zal komen. Pore pressure reduction accompanying the production of oil, gas, or geothermal fluids from sandstone reservoirs may lead to surface subsidence and induced seismicity (Evans et al., 2012; Fialko & Simons, 2000; Grünthal, 2014; Pratt & Johnson, 1926; van Wees et al., 2014). In line with previous work (David et al., 2012; Walsh, 1965), we suggest that the anisotropic versus isotropic behaviors were controlled by the elastic closure and opening of intragranular cracks and possibly dilated grain boundaries during loading and unloading, respectively. Op 29 mei 1959 werd door de Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) in Kolham (gemeente Slochteren) het eerste Groningse gas ontdekt. Overall, the P–Δφt behavior shown was closely similar to that obtained in the stress cycled, hydrostatic plus deviatoric experiments performed at the same conditions on sample z24c with similar initial porosity (φ0 = 21.5%; Figure 4b). Belangrijke voorstellen waren het reduceren van de gasproductie tot 12 miljard m³ per jaar en de onmiddellijke sluiting van het Loppersumcluster: Ten Post, Overschild, De Paauwen, ’t Zandt en Leermens. [21] Deze limiet mag worden overschreden met maximaal 6 miljard m³ bij strenge kou. Op 29 mei 1959 werd door de Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) in Kolham (gemeente Slochteren) het eerste Groningse gas ontdekt. and the brine was replaced by demineralized water by soaking the sample in demineralized water for 6–7 days. The role played by intragranular cracking per unit inelastic porosity reduction in each stage can then be quantified from the changes in mean crack density and final inelastic porosity reduction measured in progressing from the undeformed sample, to sample z77a (end Stage 1), to sample z77b (end Stage 2), and to sample z77c (end Stage 3c). Tevens kan door fermentatie van plantenmateriaal onder invloed van bacteriën (methaanvormende archea) methaan ontstaan wat eventueel door het aanwezige steenkool wordt vastgehouden. Similar trends have been seen in previous work on bassanite, showing a decreasing height‐over‐width ratio of the yield envelope with increasing inelastic compaction (Bedford et al., 2018). Hydrostatic experiments were performed at 50% pore fluid saturation and the same ion concentration as used in combined hydrostatic plus deviatoric tests. Unusually, however, NAM is owner of the hydrocarbons in Groningen, and pays an agreed percentage in royalties and tax to the government.

By the late 80's, approximately 50% of the resources of the Groningen field had been recovered, using the standard gas depletion drive mechanism. We now consider the more realistic case where pore pressure reduction leads to combined elastic plus inelastic Stage 2 deformation of the reservoir sandstone.  ~ 10−5 s−1; Ṗ ~ 0.1 MPa s−1) that are significantly faster than the strain‐rates of ~10−12 s−1 inferred in the reservoir over decades of production (Cannon & Kole, 2017). De optocht van 19 januari 2018 trok naar schatting 12.000 deelnemers.[47]. During Stage 2, the importance of intragranular cracking per unit inelastic porosity reduction was larger, but still much smaller than that seen during Stage 3c. Slochteren Gas Field The Groningen Long Term Project (GLT) focused on renovating production from the Groningen Gas Field, which, following years of use, had been impacted by lower field pressures. The next well, TBR-1, drilled in 1955, also failed to find oil in the Zechstein, and bottomed out before reaching the Lower Permian.


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