Biochem. R 1 and R 2 stand for C 1-8 alkyl, C 2-8 alkenyl or benzyl; R 3 represents C 1-8 alkyl or C 2-8 alkenyl; R 1 and R 2 may be the same or different; and R 3 may be indentical with or different from R 1 and/or R … & Ishibashi, T. (1984a) Rec-assay of food additives. Orally administered NC-5 protected mice infected with H1N1 and H1N1-H275Y, conferring 80% and 60% survival at 100 mg/kg/d, reducing body weight loss, and alleviating virus-induced lung injury. Lignin Valorization: Two Hybrid Biochemical Routes for the Conversion of Polymeric Lignin into Value-added Chemicals. A rather conventional pathway (route a) assuming CoA-dependent β-oxidation of 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid (18) to yield (1) was formulated by Zenk.31 The major objection to his proposal was the fact that this precursor, thought to be produced by hydroxylation of caffeic acid (17), has never been identified as a natural product and was thus occasionally regarded as the “missing cinnamic acid.”32 A variation of this proposal (route b in Scheme 3) avoided this problem by putting the side-chain degradation one step forward, resulting in the putative sequence, caffeic acid (17) → protocatechuic acid (19) →gallic acid (1).33 A quite different pathway (Scheme 3, route c) was proposed by other authors after tracer experiments with the fungus Phycomyces and various higher plants; their results led to the postulate of a direct aromatization of shikimic acid (15) or a biogenetically closely related compound, most likely 3-dehydroshikimic acid (14).34,35, Such contradictory results are only one example of the usual ambiguity arising from tracer experiments. Benzyl butyrate (No. Res., 368, 59–101. Mol. Res., 206, 7–24. (1990), Assay performed with and without S9; positive result only without S9, Abstract; methods and test concentrations not reported, Assay performed with and without S9; cytotoxicity at three higher concentrations, Assay performed without S9 Japanese article, English summary tables, Assay performed with and without S9; positive results only with S9, Assay performed without S9; cytotoxicity at maximum (1988) concentration, Assay performed with and without S9; positive result only with S9, Assay performed with and without S9; cytotoxicity at maximum concentration, Assay of urine samples from rats given benzaldehyde by oral gavage, per- formed with and without S9, Japanese article, English summary; assay performed with and without S9, Assay performed without S9; significant increase in mutant fraction at close to toxic doses, Japanese article, English summary; positive results without S9; weakly positive results with S9; cytotoxicity at two higher concentrations, Assay performed without S9; cytotoxicity at highest concentration, S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1538 (plate incorporation), Abstract; methods and test concentration(s) not reported, Indirect DNA repair (induction of beta-gala- ctosidase), Total incidence of cells with aberrations, 5–9%; performed without S9, Assay of urine samples from rats given isopropyl- benzyl alcohol by oral gavage; performed with and without S9, Assay of urine samples from rats given cuminaldehyde by gavage; performed with and without S9, Assay performed without S9; cytotoxicity at maximum concentration, National Toxicology Program (1993); Foureman et al.

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